The Difference that Inquiry Makes: A Collaborative Case Study on Technology and Learning, from the Visible Knowledge Project

This collection of essays from the Visible Knowledge Project is edited by Randy Bass and Bret Eynon, who served together as the Project’s Co-Directors and Principal Investigators. The Visible Knowledge Project was a collaborative scholarship of teaching and learning project exploring the impact of technology on learning, primarily in the humanities.  In all, about seventy faculty from twenty-two institutions participated in the Visible Knowledge Project over five years. Participating campuses included five research universities (Vanderbilt University, the University of Alabama, Georgetown University, the University of Southern California, Washington State University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), four comprehensive public universities (Pennsylvania’s Millersville University, California State University (CSU)–Monterey Bay, CSU Sacramento, Ohio’s Youngstown State University, and participants from several four-year colleges in the City University of New York system, including City College, Lehman, and Baruch), and three community colleges (two from CUNY–Borough of Manhattan Community College and LaGuardia Community College, and California’s Cerritos College). In addition to campus-based teams, a number of independent scholars participated from a half dozen other institutions, such as Arizona State and Lehigh University.

The project began in June 2000 and concluded in October 2005. We engaged in several methods for online collaboration to supplement our annual institutes, including an adaptation of the digital poster-tool created by Knowledge Media Lab (Carnegie Foundation), asynchronous discussion, and web-conferencing. For more detailed information, see the VKP galleries and archives at You can find pdf files formatted for printing attached at the end of each article.

Capturing the Visible Evidence of Invisible Learning

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This is a portrait of the new shape of learning with digital media, drawn around three core concepts: adaptive expertise, embodied learning, and socially situated pedagogies. These findings emerge from the classroom case studies of the Visible Knowledge Project, a six-year project engaging almost 70 faculty from 21 different institutions across higher education. Examining the scholarly work of VKP faculty across practices and technologies, it highlights key conceptual findings and their implications for pedagogical design.  Where any single classroom case study yields a snapshot of practice and insight, collectively these studies present a framework that bridges from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 technologies, building on many dimensions of learning that have previously been undervalued if not invisible in higher education.

Reading the Reader

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Many teachers wonder what happens (or doesn’t happen) when students read text. What knowledge do students need, gain, or seek when reading? Through VKP’s early emphasis on technology experimentation, Sharona Levy adapted a proven reading method of annotation from paper to computer. Through using the comment feature in Word, students’ reading processes became more transparent, explicit, and traceable, allowing her to diagnose gaps in understanding and to encourage effective reading strategies.

Close Reading, Associative Thinking, and Zones of Proximal Development in Hypertext

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How can we teach students to slow down their reading process and move beyond surface-level comprehension? Patricia O’Connor’s Appalachian Literature students co-constructed hypertexts which capture the connections readers make among assigned texts, reference documents, and multimedia sources. These hypertexts became more than artifacts of student work; rather, they became collaborative, exploratory spaces where implicit literary associations become explicit.

Inquiry, Image, and Emotion in the History Classroom

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With increased online access to historical sources, will students “read history” differently among such artifacts as text, image, or video? Questioning his own assumptions of students’ abilities to analyze historical sources, Peter Felten conducted pedagogical investigations to understand student interpretation of a variety of sources. Designing the use of visual artifacts in the classroom helped students learn not only how to interrogate and interpret primary sources, but also how to construct original arguments about history. Students’ understanding of history deepened while they became emotionally engaged with the material.

From Looking to Seeing: Student Learning in the Visual Turn

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Rather than simply using primary source images as illustrations for his course on Power, Race, and Culture in the U.S. City, David Jaffee wanted to teach his students how to interpret visual texts as a historian would. By paying close attention to his students’ readings of images, Jaffee was able to develop ways to scaffold their analysis, teaching them how to move beyond “looking” at isolated images to “seeing” historical context, connection and complexity.

Engaging Students as Researchers through Internet Use

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Effective habits of research begin early and should be practiced often. Unearthing discoveries, making connections, and evaluating judiciously are research traits valued by Taimi Olsen in her first-year composition course. Not only should these research habits exist in the library, but Olsen advocates the application of these habits in online archives hones students’ abilities to become expert researchers.

Trace Evidence: How New Media Can Change What We Know About Student Learning

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Clicker technology, often used in large-enrollment science courses, works well when every question has a single right answer. Lynne Adrian wanted to find out whether clickers could be used in disciplines which raise more questions than answers, and how illuminating the gray areas between “right” and “wrong” could help her students think critically about American studies. She found that the technology allowed her to preserve traces of the otherwise ephemeral class discussions, enabling her to analyze the types of questions she was asking in class and to track their effects on students’ written work throughout the semester.

Shaping a Culture of Conversation: The Discussion Board and Beyond

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What happens when the discussion board goes from being just an assignment to a springboard for intellectual community? Foreseeing many benefits to cultivating discussion among his English students, Ed Gallagher worked to develop frameworks to articulate why discussion is not only central to the learning process in the classroom but also beyond its walls. A higher level of critical analysis, reflection, and a synthesis of multiple perspectives turned class discussions into artful conversations.

The Importance of Conversation in Learning and the Value of Web-based Discussion Tools

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In this essay Heidi Elemendorf and John Ottenhoff discuss the central role that intellectual communities should play in a liberal education and the value of conversation for our students, and we explore the ways in which web-based conversational forums can be best designed to fully support these ambitious learning goals. Coming from very different fields (Biology and English Literature) and in different course contexts (Microbiology course for non-majors and Shakespeare seminar), they nonetheless discover core values and design issues by looking closely at the discourse produced from online discussions. Centrally, they connect what they identify as expert-like behavior to the complexities of intellectual development in conversational contexts.

Why Sophie Dances: Electronic Discussions and Student Engagement with the Arts

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Paula Berggren struggled to engage her students in critical thinking about unfamiliar art forms, until she posed a simple question on the class’s online discussion board: “Why do people dance?” She found that the students’ responses, rather than being just less-polished versions of what they might write in formal essays, warranted close analysis in their own right. In subsequent teaching, Berggren continues to incorporate some version of a middle space for student work, which not only increases students’ engagement but also allows her to observe and document their thought processes.

Connecting the Dots: Learning, Media, Community

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Sometimes the research question you ask isn’t the one you end up answering. Elizabeth Stephen recounts how a debate about the use of films in a freshman seminar led to an experiment in forming a community of scholars which could be sustained over time and across distances. Creating online spaces for students in this group to share their reflections with one another strengthened the ties among them, while allowing Stephen to analyze the multiple elements, both academic and social, which made this a successful learning community.

Focusing on Process: Exploring Participatory Strategies to Enhance Student Learning

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Confronting the challenge of improving student writing in a large sociology class, Juan José Gutiérrez developed a software-based peer review process. He required students to evaluate one another’s papers based on specific criteria and to provide constructive feedback. He found that not only did this process help with the logistics of paper-grading, but it also allowed him to adapt his teaching to address specific concerns indicated by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the peer reviews.

Theorizing Through Digital Stories: The Art of “Writing Back” and “Writing For”

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Discovering how digital stories engage students in critical, theoretical frameworks lives at the center of Rina Benmayor’s work. Through her course, Latina Life Stories, Rina asked each student to tell his or her own life story digitally and then situate the story within a theoretical context. While this process engaged students to theorize creatively, it also allowed her to document methods to recognize the quality of student work resulting in a flexible and intuitive rubric to use beyond this experience.

Video Killed the Term Paper Star? Two Views

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Two instructors from separate disciplines discuss what happens when alternative multimedia assignments replace traditional papers. Peter Burkholder found the level of engagement to change dramatically in his history courses while Anne Cross experienced new avenues for talking about sensitive subjects in sociology. Together, both professors explore the advantages and opportunities for video assignments that challenge students to synthesize information in critical and innovative ways.

Producing Audiovisual Knowledge: Documentary Video Production and Student Learning in the American Studies Classroom

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Traditionally, academic institutions have segregated multimedia production from disciplinary study. Bernie Cook wondered what his American Studies students would learn from working collaboratively to produce documentary films based on primary sources, and what he in turn might find out about their learning in the process. Students created documentary films on local history, and wrote reflections on their creative and critical process. Not only did students report tremendous engagement with the topics and sources for their projects, they also indicated satisfaction at being able to screen their work for an audience. By allowing his students to become producers of content, Cook enables them to participate fully in the intellectual work of American Studies and Film Studies.

Multimedia as Composition: Research, Writing, and Creativity

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Viet Thanh Nguyen reflects on a three-year experiment in assigning multimedia projects in courses designed around the question “How do we tell stories about America?” Determined to integrate multimedia conceptually into his courses, rather than tacking it onto existing syllabi, Nguyen views multimedia as primarily a pedagogical strategy and secondarily a set of tools. Exploring challenges and opportunities for both students and teachers in using multimedia, he outlines principles for teaching with multimedia, and concludes that, while not for everyone, multimedia can potentially create a transformative learning experience.

Looking at Learning, Looking Together: Collaboration across Disciplines on a Digital Gallery

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What does it mean for two community college colleagues, teaching in very different disciplines, to work together on a Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) project?  What happens when they join together to examine their students’ work, their individual teaching practice, and the possibilities for collaborative research?  And what do they learn when they undertake an electronic publication of that work in a digital gallery?

“It Helped Me See a New Me”: ePortfolio, Learning and Change at LaGuardia Community College

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What happens if we shift the focus of our teaching and learning innovations from a single classroom to an entire institution? What new kinds of questions and possibilities emerge? Can an entire college break boundaries, moving from a focus on “what teachers teach” to a focus on “what students learn?” Can we think differently about student learning if we create structures that enable thousands of students to use new media tools to examine their learning across courses, disciplines, and semesters? Bret Eynon explores these questions as he analyzes the college-wide ePortfolio initiative at LaGuardia Community College. Studying individual portfolios and focus group interviews, he also examines quantitative outcomes data on engagement and retention to better consider ePortfolio’s impact on student learning.

From Narrative to Database: Multimedia Inquiry in a Cross-Classroom Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Study

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Michael Coventry and Matthias Oppermann draw on their work with student-produced digital stories to explore how the protocols surrounding particular new media technologies shape the ways we think about, practice, and represent work in the scholarship of teaching and learning. The authors describe the Digital Storytelling Multimedia Archive, an innovative grid they designed to represent their findings, after considering how the technology of delivery could impact practice and interpretation. This project represents an intriguing synthesis of digital humanities and the scholarship of teaching and learning, raising important questions about the possibilities for analyzing and representing student learning in Web 2.0 environments.

Multimedia in the Classroom at USC: A Ten Year Perspective

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Does multimedia scholarship add academic value to a liberal arts education? How do we know? Looking back at the history of the Honors Program in Multimedia Scholarship at USC, Mark Kann draws on his own teaching experience, discussions with other faculty members, and the university’s curriculum review process to explore these questions. He describes the process of developing the program’s academic objectives and assessment criteria, and the challenges of gathering evidence for his intuitions about the effects of multimedia scholarship. Finally, Kann reports on the program’s first student cohort and looks ahead to the future of multimedia at USC.

Renaissance Women, Text Encoding and the Digital Humanities: An Interview with Julia Flanders

Julia Flanders is Director of the exemplary Brown University Women Writers Project and Associate Director for Textbase Development at the Brown University Scholarly Technology Group. With those projects and as Editor in Chief of the Digital Humanities Quarterly, due to launch in 2007, Julia is a key figure in humanities computing and text encoding initiatives. Academic Commons recently caught up with her to talk about her various projects.
Academic Commons:  You’ve been involved with the Brown Women Writers Project since 1992. What are the most important developments for WWP in the past several years? What’s ahead long-term for the WWP and projects like it?

Julia Flanders: In a sense, all of the important developments we’ve had in progress lately have come to fruition this year. The project released a new version of Women Writers Online this past summer, with much faster searching and a new interface. We’re now using the Philologic search engine (from the University of Chicago) which provides a lot of very interesting new functionality, particularly things like text analysis tools which we haven’t been able to offer before. Most importantly, since this is open-source XML software, it’s easier than before to experiment with interface ideas; we’ll be launching a “sandbox area” this year in which we can offer some unusual interface tools for people to play with.

This winter, we’re finishing up the WWP’s Guide to Scholarly Text Encoding, which will be published online in 2007; it will provide in-depth guidance for non-technical scholars who want to learn more about text encoding and the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), or just understand what it is and why it’s interesting. We also just learned that we’ve received funding from the NEH to offer a two-year series of workshops and seminars on scholarly text encoding, aimed at humanities faculty. This will draw on the Guide and give us an opportunity to reach a wider audience. We’re also pursuing a few other new projects: we’re seeking funding for a project which would explore the implications of providing annotation tools for readers of Women Writers Online. Annotation is a familiar idea but we think that in practice it might take our readers in a number of experimental and challenging directions: for instance, developing curricular materials that are linked directly to the texts, or writing hypertextual critical essays that consist of annotation sequences. There are a number of hard questions to address, particularly concerning issues of peer review and the technical longevity of the annotation system, but I think we need to treat these as challenges rather than obstacles.

Long-term developments for Women Writers Online include experimenting with more ways for readers to see and explore textual pattern, through visualization tools. As text collections scale up, familiar narrative reading processes become harder to apply, at least as the first stage of research; it’s helpful to have ways of seeing the whole collection and grasping its patterns as well as focusing in on individual texts. A lot of interesting work is being done in this area: the NORA project has been developing tools for data mining and visualization, and the TAPoR project in Canada has been creating a portal for text analysis that among other things offers experimental tools that can be used through TAPoR or incorporated into local project interfaces. Some of this work may benefit projects like the WWP directly and some of it may inspire further development; we’d like to take advantage of open-source efforts like these and test them out on the WWP collection.

Academic Commons: What’s your sense of how faculty are using digital resources like WWP in their research? What kinds of changes are happening in their work, and what kind of obstacles are they facing?

Julia Flanders: At the moment, I think they’re using digital collections in much the same way as they use collections of printed books: to find documents they’re interested in and to read them. Searching helps to speed up this process; online access makes it more effortless and exposes readers to a wider range of material. But habits of reading are not yet changing very much.

The biggest obstacle is the granularization of online resources, and the lack of cross-collection analysis functions. This is a problem partly because of funding and intellectual property issues, but also because it is something fundamental about the incunabular stage of electronic publishing we’re still in. Different projects are experimenting–appropriately!–with different kinds of markup, different approaches to representing materials in digital form. Those differences pose challenges for integrated searching, but they also represent important explorations into digital modeling. Tools like the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) are making it increasingly possible to find items across digital collections, but I think the more detailed analysis functions will have to wait until a further stage in the history of electronic publishing.

Academic Commons: As you note, we might see the early electronic editions as a sort of incunabula, a transitional form of text as we move toward something more stable. Is that a reasonable way of seeing the developments in digital texts, and, if so, what’s the most important aspect of the new form of text?

Julia Flanders: We are at an incunabular stage in the emergence of electronic editions, though I don’t think what we’re moving toward is more stable than what we have now. Over the past decade, I think some important fundamental practices have emerged: the use of XML (and probably some form of TEI) for the transcriptions of the text; the use of page images, linked to those transcriptions, to provide additional information; and, depending on the kind of edition, the printing of base texts with several parallel versions aligned together, providing a single text with variant readings encoded in the text stream.

Using this basic framework, a great many different surfaces can be produced, and I think that’s where you now see the greatest variation: in the behavior of the interface, the ways readers are invited to prod at the text, the kinds of information they are invited to manipulate or inspect. There’s still experimentation and research going on with respect to what’s under the hood (i.e. the encoding of the text), but I think the basic ideas there are pretty solid.

Academic Commons: You’ve been offering Text Encoding Initiative workshops for faculty. If I’m a humanities professor in a liberal arts college why might I want to learn this stuff? How is familiarity with text encoding standards–a somewhat arcane subject, we might agree–going to change my scholarship and teaching unless I’m heavily invested in preserving old texts?

Julia Flanders: I think there are a number of reasons why people take these workshops. It used to be that we saw faculty who had gotten involved in a digital project–either as a project advisor, or as the founder or editor–and wanted to understand how the encoding worked. For faculty in this position, there’s a clear motivation, even if they aren’t planning to do any of the encoding themselves: the editorial decisions they make about how the text will be represented all require some understanding of encoding (not at the technical level but at the conceptual level).

But more recently, we have started to see participants who have no particular project in hand but simply want to understand text encoding because it is methodologically so central to modern editing and, by extension, to modern textual scholarship. I doubt they would describe themselves as being interested in “text encoding standards” any more than they would have described themselves fifty years ago as being interested in “editing standards.” What they want to know–and what these workshops emphasize–is how text encoding works as a representational system: what it lets you say about texts, what assumptions it makes about how texts work, how it fits in with current scholarly practices. Given how many digital resources now are based on XML-encoded texts, some understanding of these technologies and methods is as important as understanding scholarly editing (at a basic level) would be for someone using a scholarly edition in their research. Even faculty who have no special interest in preserving old texts nonetheless use these materials in research and teaching: digital resources like ProQuest’s Literature Online and Early English Books Online collections are in some ways the modern equivalent of the Norton Anthology, the Oxford Classics and similar print sources. Faculty can’t instill a critical approach to texts in their students if they have no idea how the very sources they’re using are produced.

Academic Commons: You’re the Editor in Chief of the new Digital Humanities Quarterly. What’s the schedule for DHQ and what do you hope to accomplish?

Julia Flanders: DHQ will launch in 2007. What we’d like to accomplish is a gradual but persistent experimentation with the scholarly journal form: publishing peer-reviewed, high-quality articles on digital humanities, while offering a new range of ways to read the field and explore connections between articles. We’re also planning to offer some additional publication modes: editorials, reviews, blog entries, and interactive media pieces, plus the opportunity for reader commentary and discussion, so that the journal can represent the same kind of intellectual give-and-take that makes conferences so engaging. What will be less visible, but perhaps will have a greater impact over the long term, are some of the ways we hope to challenge traditional journal publishing assumptions. For instance, authors will retain ownership of materials published in DHQ. The journal will also be open-access, to help expose the field of digital humanities research to a broader audience. We’re hoping, above all, that the journal will help foster greater cross-pollination between digital humanities and the traditional humanities disciplines.

Western Civilization Webography

by John Ottenhoff, Associated Colleges of the Midwest

westciv.gifProfessor T. Mills Kelly, Associate Director of the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, and several colleagues have created an impressive Webography with student reviews of resources for western civilization courses.

Description from the site at

Each website in the Project database has been reviewed by one or more students, and has a rating attached to it, based upon a series of criteria, including the site’s accuracy, currency, and objectivity. In addition, each record includes a brief word annotation, describing the contents of the site and its strengths and weaknesses. All records are fully searchable, either by keyword or according to a pre-determined scheme.

The project addresses several of the issues raised by the increasing use by undergraduate students of web-based sources for their research and writing. Too often students use web-based sources uncritically or at least without sufficient regard for the quality of the sources they find on the web. When they use sources of dubious value, instructors and students end up dissatisfied–the instructors with the quality of their students’ work, and the students with their grades.

But what if both students and instructors embraced the sources available on the web, making the analysis of these sources a central problem in a course? The Webography Project provides a vehicle for just that sort of approach to teaching and learning.

Educause Learning Initiatives (ELI)

by John Ottenhoff, Associated Colleges of the Midwest

Our friends at Educause continue to try to provide some content about teaching and learning with technology. The latest ELI (Educause Learning Initiative) resources are a mixed bag. A two-page pdf “7 Things You Should Know About Wikis” might work as a quick cheat-sheet for the harrassed academic executive wanting to appear knowledgable when talking with techies about the Latest Thing. But it’s not going to help many faculty members looking for real-world ideas about teaching with wikis. A sample nugget: “The possibilities for using wikis as the platform for collaborative projects are limited only by one’s imagination and time.”

On the other hand, an “Overview of E-portfolios” by George Lorenzo and John Ittelson is a thorough and well-illustrated report about student, faculty, and institutional electronic portfolios. This “white paper” addresses a full range of issues and could well provide a foundation for institutional discussions about implementing some form of e-portfolio; looking at student e-portfolios, for instance, the authors ask good basic questions:

  • should an e-portfolio be an official record of a student’s work?
  • how long should an e-portfolio remain at an institution after the student graduates?
  • who owns the e-portfolio?
  • how are e-portfoilios evaluated in a manner that is both valid and reliable?
  • how can an institution encourage critical reflection in the design and use of e-portfolios?

These, of course, are just good questions. Whether or not Educause, the authors, or Academic Commons can prompt some good discussion about such questions is the real question.

The paper also includes links to some exemplary sites, including the Carnegie Foundation’s KEEP Toolkit for building portfolios, St. Olaf College’s Center for Integrative Study portfolios, and Portland State’s instutional site built with the open-source Zope. The white paper briefly considers “tool sets” for e-portfolios and mentions the Open Source Portfolio Initiative (OSPI). For faculty and administrators looking for more information about exemplary portfolios, the KEEP/OSP Case Studies Gallery is definitely worth checking out.

Discussion Boards in the Seminar Classroom

by John Ottenhoff, Associated Colleges of the Midwest

Instructor Name:

John Ottenhoff

Course Title:

Eng 354: Shakespeare


Alma College

What is the overall aim of the course?:
This is an upper-level Shakespeare seminar that aims to help students “become better readers, thinkers, and writers” as they shape their “own interpretations and encounter a range of critical opinions about Shakespeare’s plays.” I explicity use online discussion boards to emphasize building genuine discussion and understanding that is responsive to Shakespeare’s authorship yet open ended and constructivist.
Course design and scope of the project:
I had 8 students in this semester-long course, most of whom were English majors or minors. We met twice a week (80 minutes per session) for 14 weeks, reading one play per week. All students had taken at least two courses in literature; a few had taken my department’s required course in theory.
Incorporation of Technology:

Before our first Tuesday discussion about the play, students were expected to post to our Blackboard discussion board an initial exploratory comment, “one that poses questions and first reactions.” By the end of the week, students were expected to contribute a “follow-up posting” that commented or reflected on classroom discussion. “Use this posting to continue our in-class discussions, write what you didn’t get to say in class, react to the views of your classmates and professors, offer links to helpful articles and websites.” I periodically reviewed the online discussion and assigned general grades (check, check plus); the online discussion, as outlined in the course syllabus, constituted roughly 15% of the final grade.

Lessons Learned:

Discussion Boards have become ubiquitous and are in some respects a “low-tech” application these days. The scholarly literature has begun to accumulate, but I don’t think we understand very well how they can function in seminar classes, particularly in the ways they shape students’ sense of authority. I have made these conclusions:

  1. My students’ discussion shows a rich pattern of interaction that encompasses a wide variety of interpretive and authoritative modes. At the very least, we should be skeptical about any blanket generalizations about what online discussions cannot do or what kind of writing they make possible.
  2. Excellent postings for the online discussion—at least in terms of the values I created for my class—most of all show a rich variety of discourse modes and patterns of interaction.  The students who showed most flexibility with these forms of discussion were the most successful students in the class in terms of final grades and the degree to which they established strong, authoritative voices in the classroom.
  3. The online discussion helped considerably in changing patterns of authority and developing multiple kinds of authority. Students found a variety of methods for sharing knowledge and shaping discussion; my lack of presence in the online discussion cleared space for their voices and enabled a form of “intellectual play” that is difficult to create in even the most egalitarian classroom. That strength of student voices was, in turn, brought into the classroom through citation and carryover of the online discussion.

Work with colleagues from the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning has revealed some consistency of these findings in other disciplines and contexts.

References, links:
You can find a “snapshot” of this work on the CASTL website.
Measured Results:

My work on the CASTL website documents my efforts to code the online discussion threads, and I have followed up on this work elsewhere. In addition, I conducted some focus groups with my class and had them fill out a brief questionnaire. Students also contributed discussion about the course goals and effectiveness through a “meta” thread on the discussion board.

My results at this stage mostly focus on documenting what happens in student discussions online, especially when part of a strong discussion-focused seminar class. I’m interested in further discussion and exploration of such settings.